October 21, 2019

Interim Bankruptcy Rules Published for Public Comment

On February 19, 2020, the Small Business Reorganization Act of 2019, P.L. 116-54 (SBRA) will go into effect – long before the normal three-year rules amendment process runs its course. As a temporary measure, the Advisory Committee on Bankruptcy Rules has drafted interim bankruptcy rules and amendments to the official bankruptcy forms to address the new law that are now available for public comment through Nov. 13, 2019.

The proposed amendments and instructions on how to submit comments are posted on uscourts.gov.

When an advisory committee recommends an amendment to its rules or forms, it must obtain the approval of the Judicial Conference Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure to publish the proposed amendment for public comment. During the comment period, the public is encouraged to submit written comments and may also request to testify at public hearings on the proposed amendment.

There are two rules packages out for review.

August 19 Package

On June 25, 2019, the Judicial Conference Committee on Rules of Practice and Procedure (Standing Committee) approved publication of proposed amendments to the following:

  • Appellate Rules 3, 6, 42, and Forms 1 and 2;
  • Bankruptcy Rules 2005, 3007, 7007.1, and 9036; and
  • Civil Rule 7.1.

The comment period is open from August 19, 2019 to February 19, 2020. Read the text of the proposed amendments and supporting materials:

Preliminary Draft of Proposed Amendments to the Federal Rules of Appellate, Bankruptcy, and Civil Procedure (pdf)

Public Hearings on the August 19 Package

Members of the public who wish to present testimony may appear at public hearings on the proposed amendments.

How to Submit or Review Comments on the Proposed Amendments to the Federal Rules & Forms (August 19 Package)

Written comments are welcome on each proposed amendment. The advisory committees will review all timely comments, which are made part of the official record and are available to the public. The comment period closes on February 19, 2020.

Comments and supporting files must be submitted electronically using the regulations.gov portal. After choosing the appropriate link below, click the “Submit a Comment” link. This will display the comment on the web form. You can then enter your submitter information and attach your comment as a file (up to 10MB), or type your comment directly on the web form. When you have finished attaching or typing your comment, click the “Preview Comment” link to review. Once you are satisfied with your comment, click the “Submit” button to send your comment to the relevant advisory committee. Upon completion, you will receive a tracking number for your submission.

Detailed instructions on how to submit a comment are given in the Regulations.gov FAQs.

October 16 Package

On February 19, 2020, the Small Business Reorganization Act of 2019, P.L. 116-54 (SBRA) will go into effect – long before the normal three-year rules amendment process runs its course. As a temporary measure, the Advisory Committee on Bankruptcy Rules has drafted Interim Bankruptcy Rules that can be adopted by courts as local rules or by general order when the SBRA goes into effect. The Advisory Committee has also drafted amendments to the Official forms to address the SBRA. The Standing Committee now seeks comment on the proposed SBRA rules and forms for a short four-week period prior to making final recommendations.

  • Interim Bankruptcy Rules 1007(b), 1007(h), 1020, 2009, 2012(a), 2015, 3010(b), 3011, and 3016.
  • Official Forms 101, 201, 309E, 309F, 314, 315, 425A, and new Official Forms 309E2, and 309F2

The comment period is open from October 16, 2019 to November 13, 2019. Because of the short publication period for the Interim Rules and related Official Forms, there will be no public hearings.

Read the text of the proposed amendments and supporting materials:

Preliminary Draft of Proposed Amendments to the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure – Interim Bankruptcy Rules and Official Forms (pdf)

How to Submit or Review Comments on the Interim Bankruptcy Rules & Forms (October 16 Package)

Written comments are welcome on each proposed amendment. The Advisory Committee on Bankruptcy Rules will review all timely comments, which are made part of the official record and are available to the public. The comment period closes on November 13, 2019.

Comments and supporting files must be submitted electronically using the regulations.gov portal. After choosing the appropriate link below, click the “Submit a Comment” link. This will display the comment on the web form. You can then enter your submitter information and attach your comment as a file (up to 10MB), or type your comment directly on the web form. When you have finished attaching or typing your comment, click the “Preview Comment” link to review. Once you are satisfied with your comment, click the “Submit” button to send your comment to the relevant advisory committee. Upon completion, you will receive a tracking number for your submission.

Detailed instructions on how to submit a comment are given in the Regulations.gov FAQs.

SOURCE

History of Labor Day

Labor Day 2019

On September 2, 2019, the U.S. Department of Labor celebrates and honors the greatest worker in the world – the American worker. Labor Day 2019 is the 125th anniversary of Labor Day being celebrated as a national holiday.

Labor Day: What it Means

Labor Day, the first Monday in September, is a creation of the labor movement and is dedicated to the social and economic achievements of American workers. It constitutes a yearly national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity, and well-being of our country.

Labor Day Legislation

The first governmental recognition came through municipal ordinances passed in 1885 and 1886. From these, a movement developed to secure state legislation. The first state bill was introduced into the New York legislature, but the first to become law was passed by Oregon on February 21, 1887. During 1887, four more states – Colorado, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York – created the Labor Day holiday by legislative enactment. By the end of the decade Connecticut, Nebraska, and Pennsylvania had followed suit. By 1894, 23 more states had adopted the holiday, and on June 28, 1894, Congress passed an act making the first Monday in September of each year a legal holiday in the District of Columbia and the territories.

Founder of Labor Day

More than a century after the first Labor Day observance, there is still some doubt as to who first proposed the holiday for workers.

Some records show that Peter J. McGuire, general secretary of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners and a co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, was first in suggesting a day to honor those “who from rude nature have delved and carved all the grandeur we behold.”

But Peter McGuire’s place in Labor Day history has not gone unchallenged. Many believe that Matthew Maguire, a machinist, not Peter McGuire, founded the holiday. Recent research seems to support the contention that Matthew Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344 of the International Association of Machinists in Paterson, N.J., proposed the holiday in 1882 while serving as secretary of the Central Labor Union in New York. What is clear is that the Central Labor Union adopted a Labor Day proposal and appointed a committee to plan a demonstration and picnic.

The First Labor Day

The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.

By 1894, 23 more states had adopted the holiday, and on June 28, 1894, President Grover Cleveland signed a law making the first Monday in September of each year a national holiday.

A Nationwide Holiday

Women's Auxiliary Typographical Union

The form that the observance and celebration of Labor Day should take was outlined in the first proposal of the holiday — a street parade to exhibit to the public “the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations” of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day. Speeches by prominent men and women were introduced later, as more emphasis was placed upon the economic and civic significance of the holiday. Still later, by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of 1909, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.

The character of the Labor Day celebration has changed in recent years, especially in large industrial centers where mass displays and huge parades have proved a problem. This change, however, is more a shift in emphasis and medium of expression. Labor Day addresses by leading union officials, industrialists, educators, clerics, and government officials are given wide coverage in newspapers, radio, and television.

The vital force of labor added materially to the highest standard of living and the greatest production the world has ever known and has brought us closer to the realization of our traditional ideals of economic and political democracy. It is appropriate, therefore, that the nation pays tribute on Labor Day to the creator of so much of the nation’s strength, freedom, and leadership – the American worker.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor

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GOOD NEWS: Updated Census Bureau Median Family Income Data

March 14, 2019

The Census Bureau’s Median Family Income Data accessible through the “Means Testing Information” page has been updated. The U.S. Trustee Program will apply the updated data to all cases filed on or after April 1, 2019.

SOURCE: https://www.justice.gov/ust

All About the [Connecticut] Lemon Law Program

The “Lemon Law” is a nickname for Connecticut General Statute Chapter 743b, “Automotive Warranties. It establishes arbitration as an informal process for resolving disputes between consumers and automobile manufacturers. The law defines a lemon as a new motor vehicle (passenger car, combination or motorcycle) purchased or leased in Connecticut which does not conform to the manufacturer’s express warranty and which, after “a reasonable number of attempts” cannot be repaired. The Lemon Law covers all new passenger, combination passenger/ commercial vehicles and motorcycles purchased or leased in Connecticut:

  • Which do not conform to the manufacturer’s express warranty;
  • Which have substantial defects affecting the use, safety or value of the vehicle AND
  • The repairs must have been addressed during the eligibility period*;
  • Have manufacturer’s defects that occurred during the first two (2) years from the original owner’s delivery date or the first 24,000 miles on the odometer (whichever period ends first).
*The time period involved may be extended when repair service is unavailable due to war, strike or natural disaster.
The eligibility criteria for the Lemon Law arbitration refers to occurrences / days that must be met within the specified time frame.  However, you do not have to apply within this time period.
Items NOT covered under the law include:
  • Defects not covered under the manufacturer’s express warranty
  • Defects caused by the consumer’s abuse, neglect or unauthorized modification of the vehicle
For a car to qualify, the same problem has to be subjected to a reasonable number of repair attempts and continue to exist after these attempts at repair. The law presumes that a “reasonable number” of repair attempts is four.  However, your car may be eligible if you have less than four repair attempts for the same problem and can justify this is a reasonable number of repair attempts, and repairs have been performed within the eligibility period.  
– OR –
  
When the vehicle has been out of service for repair at the dealership for a cumulative total of thirty days or more for any number of unrelated problems. These problems must occur within the eligibility period. 
– OR – 
In the case of a safety defect which is likely to cause death or serious injury if the vehicle is driven, the defect continues to exist after two or more attempts during the first year of operation or the term of the express warranty, whichever period end first.
How to Get Started
If you believe you are eligible and wish to pursue the Department of Consumer Protection’s Arbitration Program, please print the arbitration form from this website, complete it and return it by U.S. mail to the Department as soon as possible with the required fee.
Of course, you should report the vehicle’s problems immediately to the dealer or the manufacturer.  Check your owner’s manual/warranty booklet for the address and telephone number of the zone office designated to receive your complaint. The manual will also tell you if the manufacturer requires written notification of a claim requesting a refund or replacement vehicle.  If such notification is required, you must write to the manufacturer. Please send us a copy of your letter to the manufacturer when you submit your Lemon Law application.
If you lease your vehicle, you must advise the leasing company that you are applying for Lemon Law arbitration and if they wish to be a party to the proceedings, they must notify the Department of their intent within ten (10) days of their receipt of your letter. The letter to the leasing company must be sent certified or registered mail, and a copy of the letter and postal receipt must be included with your Lemon Law application to us.
If it is determined that your case does not qualify for arbitration, the fee will be returned to you. Additionally, the manufacturer is required to pay a fee.
Once your Request for Arbitration and filing fee are received, the Department will review your application to make sure all necessary documents have been submitted. If information has been omitted, your Request for Arbitration and filing fee will be returned to you along with a list of the information or documents required to complete the submission. If all documents and information have been included, we will complete an initial review of your case to determine whether basic eligibility criteria have been met. You will be notified within five business days of the results.
If the our review indicates your case is not eligible for arbitration, your filing fee will be returned to you with an explanation as to why your case did not qualify. You may file a written appeal with the Department if you do not agree with our findings.
If our review indicates your case is eligible for arbitration, the manufacturer will be notified and asked to submit a manufacturer’s statement and filing fee. An arbitrator and an Automotive Technical Expert comprise an arbitration panel.
The arbitration panel will make the final determination as to the eligibility of your case. It is possible for a case to be deemed ineligible by the arbitration panel even though it was initially deemed eligible by the Department.
Types of hearings
When you file your Request for Arbitration, you must choose between an “oral” or “documentary” hearing. The oral arbitration process generally results in a more expeditious rendering of a decision.
Oral Hearing:  If you choose oral arbitration, you and the manufacturer’s representative will be present at the scheduled hearing. Both parties will have the opportunity to present their case before the  arbitration panel. The hearing is informal and not structured like a court of law. Typically, the consumer is heard first, followed by the manufacturer. Either party is able to ask the other questions. The arbitration panel may also have questions and may order the Automotive Technical Expert to inspect the vehicle. If possible, bring the vehicle to the hearing to avoid scheduling an inspection for a later date.
Use your “Request for Arbitration” form as a guide when preparing for an oral arbitration hearing. The form contains much of the information you will need at the hearing.
  • Bring records of everything pertaining to the dispute including all correspondence, work orders, receipts, and warranties.
  • Organize your records – Putting them in chronological order will help guide you in presenting the history of the problem.
  • Prepare an outline of the major points you wish to present to help you remember relevant information.
Be prepared to discuss the problem in its entirety.  You should:
  1. State the specific nature of the defect;
  2. Restate any conversations with dealer’s or manufacturer’s representatives;
  3. Describe any new developments which may have occurred since you submitted your “Request for Arbitration” form;
  4. Describe any repair attempts or other actions taken;
  5. State your opinion as to what action would constitute a fair resolution of the dispute;
  6. State why you feel the vehicle is a “Lemon.” For example, how has the use, safety, and/or value been substantially impaired?
  7. Prepare a list of questions to ask the manufacturer’s representative.
  8. Prepare a final summary, which should briefly review the facts you have discussed, this should include a statement regarding your opinion of a fair resolution to the dispute.
Remember, the purpose of the hearing is to allow the arbitrators to gather facts, evaluate information presented by both sides and render a fair decision. Therefore, be prepared to offer SUBSTANTIAL PROOF of each point you make especially those you feel the manufacturer may dispute.
Documentary Hearing:  If you choose documentary arbitration, you and the manufacturer’s representative will be required to submit to the Department sworn statements and other evidence you would like the panel to consider. You will receive copies of each other’s statements and have the opportunity to respond to them in writing. The arbitration panel will meet and review the statements and responses. The panel will base its decision solely on documentation and materials submitted by the parties prior to the hearing. Parties cannot present oral testimony, but may observe documentary hearings. If the panel orders a vehicle inspection, one will be scheduled at a later date and the panel will reconvene to render their decision.
Use of an Attorney
The ”Lemon Law” Program is designed to be accessible to the lay person. Most consumers coming through the program do not use an attorney; however, you are free to use one if you so choose. If your attorney will be presenting your case, you must notify the Department of Consumer Protection no later than two (2) days prior to the hearing. Also, if anyone other than the purchaser of the vehicle will be presenting the case, you must also notify the Department no later than one (1) day prior to the hearing. If someone is going to accompany you and present testimony, no prior notification is required. You also have the right to have a third party assist you in your presentation or act as a consultant or interpreter.

Administration and Operation of the [Connecticut] Courts

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the head of the Judicial Branch. Its administrative director is called the Chief Court Administrator.

Judicial Functions
The judicial functions of the Branch are concerned with the just disposition of cases at the trial and appellate levels. All judges have the independent, decision-making power to preside over matters in their courtrooms and to determine the outcome of each case before them.

Administrative Operations
The Chief Court Administrator is responsible for the administrative operations of the Judicial Branch. In order to provide the diverse services necessary to effectively carry out the Judicial Branch’s mission, the following administrative divisions have been created: Administrative Services Division | Court Support Services Division | External Affairs Division | Information Technology | Superior Court Operations

 

Administrative Services Division – Provides a wide array of centrally conducted, statewide services for the benefit of all divisions within the Judicial Branch, such as data processing, financial services, personnel matters and facilities management.

Court Support Services Division

  • Office of Adult Probation – Conducts presentence investigations ordered by the Superior Court and supervises probationers in all cases except juvenile matters.
  • Office of Alternative Sanctions – Creates and sustains a full range of alternatives to incarceration for both pre- and post-conviction adult and juvenile populations.
  • Bail Commission – Interviews and investigates individuals accused of crimes to assist the Superior Court in determining terms and conditions of pretrial release.
  • Family Services Division – Assists the Superior Court in the resolution of problems and the adjudication of cases involving family relationships, family support, child protection and juvenile delinquency. Among the services provided by the Family Division are: mediation of domestic disputes, evaluation of child custody and visitation conflicts, juvenile probation services, divorce counseling, residential placement, restitution and community services.
  • Division of Juvenile Detention Services – Provides pretrial secure detention and programming services to juveniles accused of delinquent acts.

External Affairs DivisionCoordinates a variety of legislative, educational and informational activities designed to inform and educate the public and private sectors about the mission, activities and goals of the Judicial Branch.

Information Technology Division –
The Information Technology (IT) Division consists of:

  • The Commission on Official Legal Publications (COLP) – COLP prints and distributes all Judicial publications including such things as the Connecticut Law Journal, Connecticut Reports, the Connecticut Practice Book and official court forms.
  • Judicial Information Systems (JIS) – JIS is responsible for Applications Development and Support, Network and Systems Support, Architecture & Standards as well as Service & Delivery Support.

Superior Court Operations – The Superior Court Operations Division includes the following:

  • Administration – Provides support services and guidance to all segments of the Division by directing the administrative, strategic planning, staff training and business activities, and provides for court transcript services, interpreter services, and the preservation and disposition of seized property; and, the maintenance, retrieval and destruction of records.
  • Court Operations – Ensures that the Superior Court Clerk’s offices process all matters in accordance with Statutory, Practice Book and Judicial Branch policy provisions in an efficient and professional manner through the provision of technical assistance and support services including the Centralized Infractions Bureau and Jury Administration.
  • Judge Support Services – Ensures the prompt delivery of services and programs to Superior Court judges and Family Support Magistrates pertaining to law libraries, legal research, judicial performance evaluations, continuing education and support for technology; and manages grants program.
  • Legal Services – Determines legal issues and provides support services in the areas of attorney ethics, discipline and bar admission.
  • Support Enforcement Division – Enforces, reviews and adjusts family support orders in accordance with federal and state regulation, rules and statutes.
  • Office of Victim Services – Advocates for victims of crime, arranges services, provides assistance and financial compensation.

(Reposted from the Connecticut Judicial Branch Website)

Role of the [Connecticut] Courts

Maintaining Order – The judicial system in Connecticut exists to uphold the laws of the state. Our courts help to maintain order in our society by:

  • determining the guilt or innocence of persons accused of breaking the law;
  • resolving disputes involving civil or personal rights;
  • interpreting constitutional provisions of laws enacted by the legislature and deciding what is to be the law of the state when none exists for certain situations. The court decision then becomes a precedent to be applied in like situations unless later overruled or modified by the Supreme Court or the General Assembly; and,
  • determining whether a law violates the Constitution of either the State of Connecticut or the United States.

Separation of Powers – Under our constitution, the courts are one of three branches of government:

  • The Legislative Branch (the Senate and House of Representatives) is responsible for creating new laws.
  • The Executive Branch (the Governor and executive branch agencies) is responsible for enforcing them.
  • The Judicial Branch (the courts) is responsible for interpreting and upholding our laws.

Relationship of Connecticut Courts to Federal Courts
In Connecticut, as throughout the United States, there are two judicial systems. One is the state system, established under the authority of the state constitution; the other is the federal system, established under the United States Constitution. Connecticut courts are courts of general jurisdiction. These courts handle most criminal matters and a variety of civil matters, including contracts, personal injury cases, dissolution of marriage and other legal controversies. In some instances, decisions of state courts may be appealed to the United States Supreme Court if a question of federal constitutional law arises.

Federal courts have jurisdiction over matters involving federal law, and over the following matters: cases brought by the United States, cases between two states or the citizens of two different states, cases between a state and a foreign state or its citizens, admiralty and maritime cases, and cases affecting ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel.

(Reposted from the Connecticut Judicial Branch Website)

Organization of the Courts [In Connecticut]: Probate Court

In addition to the state-operated courts, Connecticut has probate courts, which have jurisdiction over the estates of deceased persons, testamentary trusts, adoptions, conservators, commitment of the mentally ill, guardians of the persons, and estates of minors.

Each Probate Court has one judge, who is elected to a four-year term by the electors of the probate district. There are 54 Probate Court districts and six Regional Children’s Probate Courts. State law requires that probate judges be attorneys, and they are paid through a statutory formula. Probate Courts are housed in municipal facilities, most often town and city halls.

(Reposted from the Connecticut Judicial Branch Website)

New Bankruptcy Form, Rules Take Effect

Individuals filing for bankruptcy under Chapter 13 must use a new form that presents their payment plan in a more uniform and transparent manner, and creditors will have less time to submit a proof of claim, under new bankruptcy rules and form amendments that took effect Dec. 1.

By creating greater uniformity of where specific types of information must be entered, the new national Chapter 13 plan form will make it easier for creditors, lawyers and judges to ensure that all elements of a bankruptcy agreement reached under Chapter 13 comply with federal laws. Chapter 13, sometimes known as the wage earner’s plan, enables qualified individual filers to reschedule and make debt payments, allowing them to keep their homes and other property.

Bankruptcy courts previously had relied on local versions of Chapter 13 plans, which varied from district to district, in resolving Chapter 13 cases. They now must either use a new national Bankruptcy Form 113, or create a locally adapted form that contains key elements of the national form. In recent months, courts have been updating electronic filing systems and notifying local bankruptcy lawyers and filers of the pending changes.

The deadline for creditors to file a proof of claim was revised in an amendment to Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure 3002.

The new deadline will affect bankruptcies filed under Chapter 7, in which debtors liquidate assets; Chapter 12, which enables family farmers and fishermen to restructure their finances; and Chapter 13. Previously creditors had 90 days after an initial meeting of creditors was held. Now, a proof of claim must be submitted within 70 days of the filing of a bankruptcy petition.

Federal rules amendments typically follow a three-year process, which includes multiple layers of review and extensive public comment.

In April, the Supreme Court transmitted the new rules regarding bankruptcy, as well as amendments to Appellate and Civil Rules of Procedure, and Rules of Evidence, to Congress. The new rules took effect Dec. 1 when Congress did not act to prevent their implementation.

Find a full list of the new rules and form amendments and the Current Rules of Practice and Procedure. Find additional information about the bankruptcy process.

(Re-posted from http://www.uscourts.gov/news/2017/12/01/new-bankruptcy-form-rules-take-effect)

Role of the Courts [in Connecticut]

Maintaining Order – The judicial system in Connecticut exists to uphold the laws of the state. Our courts help to maintain order in our society by:

  • determining the guilt or innocence of persons accused of breaking the law;
  • resolving disputes involving civil or personal rights;
  • interpreting constitutional provisions of laws enacted by the legislature and deciding what is to be the law of the state when none exists for certain situations. The court decision then becomes a precedent to be applied in like situations unless later overruled or modified by the Supreme Court or the General Assembly; and,
  • determining whether a law violates the Constitution of either the State of Connecticut or the United States.

Separation of Powers – Under our constitution, the courts are one of three branches of government:

  • The Legislative Branch (the Senate and House of Representatives) is responsible for creating new laws.
  • The Executive Branch (the Governor and executive branch agencies) is responsible for enforcing them.
  • The Judicial Branch (the courts) is responsible for interpreting and upholding our laws.

Relationship of Connecticut Courts to Federal Courts
In Connecticut, as throughout the United States, there are two judicial systems. One is the state system, established under the authority of the state constitution; the other is the federal system, established under the United States Constitution. Connecticut courts are courts of general jurisdiction. These courts handle most criminal matters and a variety of civil matters, including contracts, personal injury cases, dissolution of marriage and other legal controversies. In some instances, decisions of state courts may be appealed to the United States Supreme Court if a question of federal constitutional law arises.

Federal courts have jurisdiction over matters involving federal law, and over the following matters: cases brought by the United States, cases between two states or the citizens of two different states, cases between a state and a foreign state or its citizens, admiralty and maritime cases, and cases affecting ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel.

(Reposted from the Connecticut Judicial Branch Website)

History of the Courts [in Connecticut]

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First Connecticut Judicial Proceedings
The first Connecticut judicial proceedings were probably held on April 26, 1636 at “A Corte holden in Newton” (Hartford) under the commission granted to eight leaders by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay.

In 1638, the General Court established the Particular Court (often called the “Quartet Court” because it was required to meet every three months). While the General Court, later called the General Assembly, controlled the administration of justice, the Particular Court was the principal judicial body until the union of the New Haven and Connecticut colonies and the granting of the Charter from Charles II in 1662.

In 1665, with the new Charter, the Particular Court was abolished and two new levels of courts were established: the Court of Assistants in 1665, and the county courts one year later. Separate probate courts were established in 1698 to handle such matters as wills and estates.

The Court of Assistants was abolished in 1711. Its powers of original and appellate jurisdiction were assumed by the newly created Superior Court, the forerunner of the sole trial court of general jurisdiction which exists in Connecticut today.

Creation of an Independent Judiciary
During the period between the Revolutionary War and the adoption of the Connecticut Constitution in 1818, significant developments in the direction of creating an independent judiciary took place.

In 1784, the Supreme Court of Errors was created as the highest appellate tribunal of the state, with the power to review lower court cases based on a writ of error, a power previously held by the General Assembly.

In 1818, the first Connecticut Constitution was adopted, setting forth the doctrine of separation of powers and establishing the three separate branches of government. This constitution created “… a Supreme Court of Errors, a Superior Court, and such inferior courts as the general assembly shall from time to time ordain and establish.”

County courts were abolished in 1855 and their functions were transferred to a strengthened Superior Court. As the volume of cases continued to increase, however, the General Assembly found it necessary to create a series of Courts of Common Pleas.

Justices of the Peace
Justices of the Peace have played a vital part in the judicial system, beginning in 1686. By the end of the seventeenth century, justices were commonly authorized to take jurisdiction over small actions. As towns were incorporated, the General Assembly authorized the creation of town and borough courts in order to handle small cases. Justices of the peace presided over these courts.

Twentieth Century Developments
In 1939, the trial justice system was enacted, vesting the limited criminal jurisdiction formerly within the power of all justices of the peace in specially designated trial justices.

In 1921, Connecticut’s first juvenile courts were established in several towns, and in 1942, a state-wide Juvenile Court came into existence.

In 1941, the General Assembly enacted legislation to establish a single Court of Common Pleas for the entire state with judges subject to periodic reassignment on a statewide basis. Prior to this legislation, judges sat only in the counties to which they had been appointed.

When the General Assembly abolished county government in 1960, the municipal courts and trial justice system were replaced by a state-wide Circuit Court. The three-level system of state, county and municipal courts was dissolved in favor of a completely state-maintained system.

On December 31, 1974, the Circuit Court was merged with the Court of Common Pleas. Circuit Court judges were elevated to the Court of Common Pleas. This consolidation was followed four years later by the merger of the Court of Common Pleas and Juvenile Court with the Superior Court on July 1, 1978. Common Pleas and Juvenile Court judges became judges of the Superior Court. The Superior Court thus became the sole trial court of general jurisdiction in the state, and Connecticut acquired the first unified court system in the country.

In 1982, the state Constitution was amended to establish the Appellate Court to help alleviate the caseload burden on the Supreme Court. – (History of the Appellate Court – PDF)

(Reposted from the Connecticut Judicial Branch Website)

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