The Superior Court hears all legal controversies except those over which the Probate Court has exclusive jurisdiction. Probate Court matters may be appealed to the Superior Court.
The state is divided into 13 judicial districts, 20 geographical areas and 12 juvenile districts. In general, major criminal cases, civil matters and family cases not involving juveniles are heard at judicial district court locations. Other civil and criminal matters are heard at geographical area locations. Cases involving juveniles are heard at juvenile court locations.
The Superior Court has four principal trial divisions: civil, criminal, family and housing.
Civil Division – A civil case is usually a matter in which one party sues another to protect civil, personal or property rights. Examples of typical civil cases include landlord-tenant disputes, automobile or personal accidents, product or professional liability suits and contract disputes. In most civil cases, the accusing party (plaintiff) seeks to recover money damages from another party (defendant). Cases may be decided by the judge or by a jury, depending on the nature of the claim and the preference of the parties.
Criminal Division – A criminal case is one in which a person (defendant) is accused of breaking the law. The two sides in a criminal case are the state, represented by a state’s attorney (because crimes are considered acts that violate the rights of the entire state), and the defendant. Crimes (felonies and misdemeanors), violations and infractions are heard in the Criminal Division.
Housing Division – Cases involving housing are heard in special housing sessions in the Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven, Stamford-Norwalk and Waterbury judicial districts. In all other judicial districts, these cases are part of the regular civil docket.
Family Division – The Family Division is responsible for the just and timely resolution of family relations matters and juvenile matters. Examples of family relations matters include: dissolution of marriage, child custody, relief from abuse and family support payments. Juvenile matters include: delinquency, child abuse and neglect, and termination of parental rights.